芬蘭-烏戈爾宗教

芬蘭-烏戈爾宗教(Finno-Ugric religion)

關於居住在斯堪的那維亞半島北部、西伯利亞、波羅的海地區和中部歐洲的芬蘭-烏戈爾諸民族前基督教時期的宗教信仰與儀式。現存民族包括了薩米人(拉普人)、芬人、愛沙尼亞人、匈牙利人、彼爾姆人和窩瓦芬人。這些民族因地理環境和文化上的差異,使得他們的宗教信仰也有很大的不同。「精靈潛水採土造地」的神話是流傳最廣的芬蘭-烏戈爾民族的創世之說,上帝命令精靈潛入海水中,取來沙礫,上帝用這些沙礫就成了這個地球;另一個神話則說「世界來自一個大卵」。天帝和地母是兩個最重要的神。日常生活是由守護神負責;它們「統治」一方或「據有」一地,諸如一個文化範疇(如一個家庭),一處自然區域(如森林或湖泊)或一種自然現象(如火或風)。芬蘭-烏戈爾諸民族亦敬奉祖先。宗教權威人士有巫師或卜者、獻祭祭司、寺廟管家、職業泣婦、婚禮司儀。儀式舉行地點有家祠和在林地築以圍欄的公祭場地,也有沿著放牧通路兩邊設定的「獻祭石堆」。

English version:

Finno-Ugric religion

Pre-Christian belief systems of the Finno-Ugric peoples,who lived in northern Scandinavia,Siberia,the Baltic region,and central Europe. Surviving Finno-Ugric groups include the Sami (Lapps),Finns,Estonians,and Magyars. The geographic and cultural diversity of these peoples led to the evolution of varying religious beliefs. The most common Finno-Ugric creation myth is the earth-diver myth,in which the devil is forced to dive into the sea and gather sand,from which God forms the earth. Another myth tells of the creation of the world from a cosmic egg. The chief deities usually included a sky god and an earth mother. While the major gods were remote,there were guardian spirits at hand to regulate daily life; they resided in households,natural sites such as lakes and forests,and natural phenomena such as wind or fire. Ancestor worship was practiced. Religious functionaries included shamans,sacrificing priests,guardians of the sanctuary,professional weeping women,and performers of wedding ceremonies. Cult centers ranged from home sanctuaries to sacred groves and sacrificial stones.

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