社團主義

社團主義(corporatism)

把整個社會組織成從屬於國家的各種「社團」的理論和實踐。按照這種理論,工人和僱主被組織到產業社團和職業社團中,這些社團作為政治代表機關,在很大程度上支配其管轄之內的人員和他們的活動。這種思想最早的理論闡述是在法國大革命以後,而在德國東部和奧地利最為突出,主要代言人是梅特涅公爵的宮廷哲學家米勒(A. Muller,1779~1829),他勾勒出一個理想的「階級國家」,這些階級如同業公會或公司一樣運作,每個公會或公司控制一種特定的社會生活。但這種理論一直到義大利墨索里尼奪取政權後,才付諸實現,他在第二次世界剛開始時實施這種主張,結果導致他垮臺。1970年代以來,出現了一種新型的社團主義(即民主或新社團主義),它與一種利益代表制有關,國家要透過與工會、商業聯盟的溝通來制定政策。

English version:

corporatism

Theory and practice of organizing the whole of society into corporate entities subordinate to the state. According to the theory,employers and employees would be organized into industrial and professional corporations serving as organs of political representation and largely controlling the people and activities within their jurisdiction. Its chief spokesman was Adam Müller (1779-1829),court philosopher to Klemens,Furst von Metternich,who conceived of a “class state” in which the classes operated as guilds,or corporations,each controlling a specific function of social life. This idea found favor in central Europe after the French Revolution,but was not put into practice until Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy; its implementation there had barely begun by the start of World War II,which resulted in his fall. Since the 1970s,a new variety of corporatism,democratic- or neo-corporatism,refers to a system of interest representation in which states negotiate policy with trade union and business confederations.

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