泰國

泰國(Thailand)

正式名稱泰王國(Kingdom of Thailand)

舊稱暹羅(Siam)

亞洲東南部王國。面積513,115平方公里。人口約61,251,000(2001)。首都︰曼谷。人口以泰人佔多數,其次是中國人、高棉人和馬來人。語言︰泰語(官方語)。宗教︰佛教(國教)。貨幣︰泰銖(B)。該國的地形包括了森林覆蓋的丘陵和山脈,涵蓋了昭披耶河三角洲的中部平原,及東北部的高原。市場經濟大多以服務業、輕工業和農業為基礎。以生產鎢和錫為主。重要的農產品有稻米、玉蜀黍、橡膠、大豆和鳳梨;製造業包括了服裝、罐頭食品、電路和水泥。旅遊業亦重要。國家形式為君主立憲政體,兩院制。國家元首是國王,政府首腦為總理。

泰國地區已連續被佔據達兩萬年之久。從9世紀起,它是孟王國和高棉王國的一部分。10世紀前後,講傣語的民族從中國移民過來。在13世紀時出現了兩個傣族國家:一個是反抗高棉人成功後於1220年前後成立的速可臺王國,另一個是打敗孟人後於1296年成立的清邁。1351年阿瑜陀耶的傣王國繼承了速可臺。緬甸人是它最強的對手,在16世紀曾短期佔領它,並在1767年破壞過它。1782年卻克里王朝興起,將首都遷到曼谷,沿著馬來半島擴充套件帝國,並進入了寮國和柬埔寨。1856年稱國名為暹羅。雖然19世紀期間西方的影響增加,但暹羅的統治者們給歐洲國家特權以避免殖民地化;它是東南亞國家中唯一能如此做的。1917年參加第一次世界大戰,站在同盟國一方。1932年軍事政變後,它成為君主立憲的國家,1939年正式更名為泰國。第二次世界大戰中被日本佔領。由於是聯合國部隊的成員而參加了韓戰。在越戰中它與南越結盟。與其他的東南亞國家一樣,泰國也經受了1990年代的區域金融危機。

English version:

Thailand

formerlySiamKingdom,S.East Asia. Area: 198,115 sq mi (513,115 sq km). Population (1997 est.): 60,602,000. Capital: Bangkok. The population is predominantly Thai,with significant Chinese,Khmer,and Malay minorities. Language: Thai (official). Religion: Buddhism (official). Currency: Thai baht. The country encompasses forested hills and mountains,a central plain containing the Chao Phraya River delta,and a plateau in the northeast. Its market economy is based largely on services,light industries,and agriculture. It is a large producer of tungsten and tin. Among its chief agricultural products are rice,corn,rubber,soybeans,and pineapples; manufactures include clothing,canned goods,electrical circuits,and cement. Tourism is also important. It is a constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses; its chief of state is the king,and the head of government is the prime minister. The region of Thailand has been continuously occupied for 20,000 years. It was part of the Mon and Khmer kingdoms from the 9th century AD. Thai-speaking peoples emigrated from China c. 10th century. During the 13th century two Thai states emerged: the Sukhothai kingdom,founded c. 1220 after a successful revolt against the Khmer,and Chiang Mai,founded in 1296 after defeating the Mon. In 1351 the Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya succeeded Sukhothai. The Burmese were its most powerful rival,occupying it briefly in the 16th century and destroying it in 1767. The Chakri dynasty came to power in 1782,moving the capital to Bangkok and extending the empire along the Malay Peninsula and into Laos and Cambodia. It was named Siam in 1856. Though Western influence increased during the 19th century,Siam's rulers avoided colonization by granting concessions to European countries; it was the only S.East Asian nation able to do so. In 1917 it entered World War I on the side of the Allies. It became a constitutional monarchy following a military coup in 1932 and was officially renamed Thailand in 1939. It was occupied by Japan in World War II. It participated in the Korean War as a UN forces member. It was allied with South Vietnam in the Vietnam War. Along with other S.East Asian nations,it suffered from the 1990s regional financial crisis.

參考文章

泰國筍殼魚—— 外來小魚兒的大“錢”途水產/漁業泰國筍殼魚養殖方式介紹水產/漁業泰國筍殼魚的養殖方式介紹水產/漁業泰國大果番石榴的品種型別果樹園藝泰國科學家培育成功無異味榴蓮果樹園藝新型水果玉米――泰國花仙子糧食作物泰國鬥魚有哪些疾病水產/漁業泰國日本出新招 欲跟向日葵要燃油經濟作物公元1975年出生的泰國影視明星常識公元1978年出生的泰國影視明星常識

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