宗系遺傳

宗系遺傳(descent)

公認的社會家系體制,各個社會都不相同,一個人可以據此宣稱和另一個人有親屬關係(kinship)。宗系遺傳制度的實踐意義在於,一個人可以據此申明自己的權利、義務、特權或地位。當以親屬關係決定繼位、遺產繼承(inheritance)或住宅繼承時,宗系遺傳制度具有特殊影響。限制親屬關係之認同的方法之一是僅強調雙親中一方的種種關係。這種所謂「單系」親屬制度有兩種主要型別︰父系(或男系)制度強調父親方面的種種關係;母系(或女系)制度強調母親方面的種種關係。單系制度與所謂同族制度大不相同,根據同族制度,每一個人對父系及母系親屬負有同樣的義務及責任,反過來也可以從父系及母系親屬指望獲得同樣權利和特權。在結構上,並從權利及義務上講,同族制度是模糊的,趨向於成為工業化程度較高的國家的特性,在這些國家,個人的權利及義務日益為制度及法律所規定。

English version:

descent

System of acknowledged social parentage whereby a person may claim kinship ties with another. Descent systems vary widely. The practical importance of descent comes from its use as a means for individuals to assert rights,duties,privileges,or status. Descent has special influence when rights to succession,inheritance,or residence follow kinship lines. One method of limiting the recognition of kinship is to emphasize the relationship through one parent only. Such unilineal kinship systems are of two main types—patrilineal systems,in which the relationships through the father are emphasized; and matrilineal systems,in which maternal relationships are stressed. These systems differ radically from cognatic systems,in which everyone has similar obligations to,and expectations from,both paternal and maternal kin. The cognatic system is somewhat vague and tends to characterize the more industrialized countries,in which individual rights and duties are increasingly defined institutionally or legally.

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