居維葉

居維葉(1769~1832年)

Cuvier,Georges (-Léopold-Chrétien-Frédéric-Dagobert)

受封為Baron Cuvier

法國動物學家、政治家,建立了比較解剖學和古生物學。任職於巴黎自然歷史博物館。在他出版的《按結構分類的動物界》(1917)中,陳述了他的「器官相伴」(correlation of parts)理論,認為動物每個器官的解剖構造,與其自身其他器官在功能上是互相聯絡的,而各器官的功能與構造上的特點,則是與環境互動影響的結果。他根據各種動物的解剖特徵,把動物分成四大類(脊椎動物、軟體動物、節肢動物和輻射動物),是對林奈分類系統的一大改進。他把自己的學說應用於化石研究,認為陸地隆起、洪水氾濫等鉅變,是物種生成和毀滅的主要因素。雖然他的災變說後來無人相信,但他在堅實的經驗基礎上建立了古生物學。他曾擔任拿破崙的公共教育督察員,協助籌建法國的省立大學,他也是巴黎大學的榮譽校長。

English version:

1769~1832年

Cuvier,Georges (-Léopold-Chrétien-Frédéric-Dagobert)

French zoologist and statesman who established the sciences of comparative anatomy and paleontology. As a staff member at the Museum of Natural History in Paris,he published Le règne animal distribué d'après son organisation (1817; “The Animal Kingdom,Distributed According to Its Organization”) that described his “correlation of parts” theory,in which every animal organ is functionally related to all its other organs and that an animal's functions and habits determine its anatomic form. Cuvier's classification of all animals into four completely discrete groups was a significant advance over the system of Carolus Linnaeus. He applied his functional concept to the study of fossils,postulating that huge land upheavals and floods were the principal factor in the creation and destruction of species. Though the theory did not last,Cuvier's work put paleontology on a firm empirical foundation. As Napoleon's inspector of public instruction,he helped establish France's provincial universities,and he also served as chancellor of the University of Paris.

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