滑鐵盧戰役

滑鐵盧戰役(1815年6月18日)

Waterloo,Battle of

拿破崙遭到徹底失敗的一次戰役。從此,法國與歐洲其他國家之間連續二十三年的戰事宣告結束。這次戰役地點在布魯塞爾南方滑鐵盧村附近。一方是拿破崙的軍隊72,000人,另一方是威靈頓公爵的聯盟軍68,000人(包括英、荷、比、德的部隊)和布呂歇爾領導的普魯士軍約45,000人。拿破崙的元帥內伊和格魯希擊敗了普軍並將威靈頓阻止在卡特勒布拉,但均未將他們殲滅。拿破崙把開始進攻威靈頓的時間從上午推遲到中午,目的在於讓土地乾燥,但由此鑄成大錯。普魯士軍隊恰好獲得奔赴滑鐵盧馳援威靈頓所需的時間。法軍的四次主攻都末達到重創聯盟軍和突破陣線的目的。當內伊成功的奪佔聯盟軍戰線中部的農莊,並要求增援步兵,遭拿破崙拒絕。此時,威靈頓及其武力雖受到重創,但已重整旗鼓,又得到蔡滕(H. E. K. von Zieten)指揮的普魯士軍隊的支援。在聯盟軍展開最後攻擊時,法軍大亂,驚慌逃竄。此役拿破崙軍共傷亡25,000人,被俘9,000人。威靈頓軍則傷亡15,000人,布呂歇爾軍傷亡大約8,000人。四天後,拿破崙被迫第二次遜位。

English version:

1815年6月18日

Waterloo,Battle of

Final defeat of Napoleon and French forces in the Napoleonic Wars. The battle was fought near Waterloo village,south of Brussels,by Napoleon's 72,000 troops against the duke of Wellington's combined Allied army of 68,000 aided by 45,000 Prussians under Gebhard von Blucher. After the French defeated the Prussians at Ligny and held Wellington at Quatre-Bras in secondary battles on June 16,Napoleon's marshals,including Michel Ney,failed to eliminate either enemy while they were separated. Napoleon delayed his attack at Waterloo until midday,to allow the ground to dry,which enabled Blücher's main force to escape the pursuing French and join Wellington. Four French attacks on the Allied center failed to break through,and Napoleon had to move troops to meet the Prussian flanking attack. When Ney succeeded in capturing a farmhouse at the center of the Allied line,his call to Napoleon for reinforcements was refused. Wellington and his forces,though vulnerable after heavy losses,repulsed the final French assault and turned to advance against the French,forcing them into a disorganized retreat. The French suffered 25,000 casualties,Wellington's army suffered 15,000,and Blücher's suffered 8,000. Four days later,Napoleon abdicated for the last time.

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