美索不達米亞宗教

美索不達米亞宗教(Mesopotamian religions)

指蘇美人、阿卡德人以及他們的後繼者(即居住在古美索不達米亞的巴比倫人和亞述人)的宗教信仰和儀式。蘇美諸神通常和自然界各方面有關,如土地肥沃和家畜興旺。亞述和巴比倫尼亞的神並沒有取代蘇美和阿卡德的神,而是逐漸被同化入舊的體系。在美索不達米亞眾神中最重要的有天神安努、水神恩基(Enki)、地神恩利爾(Enlil)。這些神通常和某些特定的城市有關聯。星神如沙瑪什和辛也受人崇拜。美索不達米亞人是研究天體運動的老練的占星家。祭司也透過觀察某些徵兆,特別是解讀祭祀的動物內臟,來推斷神的旨意。國王為主祭司,主持在春季舉行的新年慶典,當新王上任時,還要慶祝神戰勝了混沌勢力。

English version:

Mesopotamian religions

Religious beliefs and practices of the Sumerians and Akkadians,and later of their successors,the Babylonians and Assyrians,who inhabited ancient Mesopotamia. The deities of Sumer were usually associated with aspects of nature,such as fertility of the fields and livestock. The gods of Assyria and Babylonia,rather than displacing those of Sumer and Akkad,were gradually assimilated into the older system. Among the most important of the many Mesopotamian gods were Anu,the god of heaven; Enki,the god of water; and Enlil,the earth god. Deities were often associated with particular cities. Astral deities such as Shamash and Sin were also worshiped. The Mesopotamians were skilled astrologers who studied the movements of the heavenly bodies. Priests also determined the will of the gods through the observation of omens,especially by reading the entrails of sacrificed animals. The king functioned as the chief priest,presiding at the new-year festival held in spring,when the kingship was renewed and the triumph of the deity over the powers of chaos was celebrated.

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