保齡球

保齡球(bowling)

把一個重球投滾到一條長而窄的滑道以擊倒十支木瓶柱的一種遊戲。保齡球歷史悠久,自古就有各種不同的玩法。九瓶柱保齡球由荷蘭移民在17世紀帶到美國,這種遊戲十分流行,賭博成分居多,以致為許多州所禁止。傳說在18世紀初,人們把瓶數加至十個,藉此規避法律。20世紀開始大為風行,既是娛樂活動,亦是職業運動(1958年始)。一局比賽分十格,每人每格可投兩個球。如果第一個球就把所有的瓶柱擊倒,叫做「全倒」,記為十分。如果還有瓶子沒倒,投第二球時才把它們全部擊倒,叫做「補全倒」,也記為十分。一格當中如有一次全倒,下兩球擊倒的瓶柱數也要算進那一格中。一次補全倒後,下一球的分數也要計算進補全倒的那一格。一格最高三十分,一局十格滿分為三百分,即十二次全倒。另有幾種類似的保齡球,如滾木球戲、鴨柱戲、九柱戲。

English version:

bowling

Game in which a heavy ball is rolled down a long,narrow lane to knock down a group of 10 wooden objects (called pins). Versions of the game have existed since ancient times. Ninepin bowling was brought to the U.S. in the 17th century by Dutch settlers; it became so popular and so associated with gambling that it was outlawed in several states. According to legend,a tenth pin was added in the 18th century to circumvent such laws. The game grew to enormous popularity in the 20th century,both as a recreational activity and (since 1958) as a professional sport. Each game is divided into 10 frames,and each player is allowed to deliver up to two balls per frame. If all the pins are knocked down on the first ball,a strike is recorded (10 points). If pins remain standing,and the second ball knocks them down,the player is awarded a spare (10 points). If a strike is thrown in a frame,the number of pins knocked down by the next two balls bowled count in that frame. After a spare,the score of the next ball counts in the spare's frame. Thus,the maximum point total for a single frame is 30. A perfect score is 300,or 12 strikes in a row. Versions of the game include candlepins,duckpins,and skittles.

參考文章

檯球保齡球適用營業稅稅率是多少?財務稅務為什麼更年期者忌常打保齡球?保健養生老人休閒新寵:保齡球保健養生保齡球運動的由來基礎知識

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