北部地方

北部地方(Northern Territory)

亦譯澳北區。澳大利亞北部自治領地。面積1,346,200平方公里。首府達爾文,是艾麗斯斯普林斯(Alice Springs)以外唯一人口稍多的城市。當地人口大部分是歐洲移民的後代,約1/5為澳大利亞原住民。主要由臺地組成,東南是辛普森沙漠,北部是安恆地區高原。原住民在此已經居住了數千年,艾爾斯巖為其文化中心。荷蘭人於17世紀探險時到過這裡,19世紀初夫林德斯(M. Flinders)對此地作了調查。最初為新南威爾士的一部分,1863年併入南澳大利亞,1911年由澳大利亞聯邦直接管轄。北部有部分地區在第二次世界大戰中曾遭日本轟炸,後被同盟國軍隊佔領。1978年取得在聯邦範圍內的自治權。當地人口稀少,經濟以牛牧場、礦業及政府服務業為主,20世紀後期旅遊業有所發展。人口195,000(1996)。

English version:

Northern Territory

Territory (population 1996: 195,000),northern Australia. It covers an area of 519,800 sq mi (1,200 sq km). Its capital is Darwin; the only other sizeable town is Alice Springs. Most of the people are of European descent; about one-fifth are Australian Aborigines. It consists mainly of tableland,with Simpson Desert in the southeast and the Arnhem Land plateau in the north. It was inhabited by Aborigines for thousands of years; they held Ayers Rock as central to their culture. The coast was explored by the Dutch in the 17th century and surveyed in the early 19th century by Matthew Flinders. First included as part of New South Wales,it was annexed to South Australia in 1863. It reverted to direct control of the Commonwealth in 1911. The northern parts were bombed by the Japanese in World War II and occupied by Allied troops. It was granted self-government within the Commonwealth in 1978. It remains sparsely inhabited; its economy rests on cattle farming,mining,and government services,although tourism was growing in the late 20th century.

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