非洲中心論

非洲中心論(Afrocentrism)

一種文化性、政治性、意識形態性的運動,成員多數為非裔美國人,他們將所有黑人視為非洲人的融合體,他們也相信自己的世界觀必須積極反映非洲的傳統價值。非洲中心論主張,過去由於歐洲人的奴役以及殖民,黑人和其他非白種族裔受到宰制已有幾世紀之久,同時,歐洲文化也藉由忽視或貶低非歐洲人的成就來獲致自決。根植於歷史上各種黑人民族獨立運動,像是衣索比亞主義(Ethiopianism)、泛非主義(Pan-Africanism)、黑人自覺運動(Negritude)等,非洲中心論力陳古埃及在文化上的首要性,被視為一種喚起政治行動的激發力量。除了強調合作與靈性之外,非洲中心論也擁護當代非裔美國人的表達文化(語言、烹調、音樂、舞蹈、衣著等)。阿桑特(Molefi Asante)於1980年代創出此一詞彙,「非洲中心主義」這個字眼因為幾部著作而廣為流傳,像是伯諾(Martin Bernal)所著的《黑色雅典娜:古典文明中的非亞根源》(Black Athena: Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization,兩卷本,1987~1991)。然而,這種觀點遭到主流學者的反對,他們指其缺乏歷史精確性、學術上不合格、充滿種族偏見--這使得非洲中心論的某些擁護者反控他們具有種族偏見。

English version:

Afrocentrism

Cultural,political,and ideological movement,predominantly comprised of African Americans,which regards all blacks as syncretic Africans and which believes that their worldview should positively reflect traditional African values. Afrocentrism argues that for centuries blacks and other nonwhites have been dominated,through slavery and colonization by Europeans,and that European culture ignores or devalues efforts by non-Europeans to achieve self-determination. Rooted in historical black nationalist movements such as Ethiopianism,Pan-Africanism,and Negritude,Afrocentrism asserts the cultural primacy of ancient Egypt and is seen as a spur to political activism. In addition to emphasizing cooperation and spirituality,it champions contemporary African-American expressive culture (language,cuisine,music,dance,and clothing). Coined by Molefi Asante in the 1980s,the term "Afrocentrism" was popularized by such books as [book]Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization,2 vol. (1987-91),by Martin Bernal. However,it has encountered opposition from mainstream scholars who charge it with historical innacuracy,scholarly ineptitude,and racism-prompting countercharges of racism from some of its defenders.

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