克麗奧佩脫拉

克麗奧佩脫拉(前69~西元前30年)

Cleopatra (VII)

埃及女王(馬其頓人的後裔),埃及國王托勒密王朝的末代君主。她是托勒密十二世(西元前112年~西元前51年)的次女。先後與兩位丈夫(兄弟)共執朝政,即托勒密十三世(西元前51~西元前47年)和托勒密十四世(西元前47~西元前44年),這兩人後來都被她所殺,之後與兒子托勒密十五世一起執政。她聲稱兒子的父親是凱撒,系西元前48年凱撒追擊龐培到埃及時,兩人相愛所生。她追隨凱撒到羅馬,西元前44年凱撒被刺殺後,她急忙回到埃及安置兒子即位。後來她引誘凱撒的繼承人安東尼與她結婚(西元前36年),激怒了屋大維,因安東尼原已娶屋大維之妹為妻。她成功策畫使安東尼與其朋友猶太國王希律反目成仇,結果失去希律的支援。西元前34年安東尼在亞歷山大里亞舉辦慶典慶祝打敗安息時,把羅馬土地賜予這位外國妻子和其家族。屋大維後來向他們宣戰,西元前31年屋大維在亞克興戰役中打敗他們的聯軍。安東尼最後自殺,克麗奧佩脫拉在試圖迷惑屋大維不成之後,以毒蛇咬胸自殺。

English version:

前69~西元前30年

Cleopatra (VII)

Egyptian queen (of Macedonian descent),last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Daughter of Ptolemy XII (112?-51 BC),she ruled with her two brother-husbands,Ptolemy XIII (51-47) and Ptolemy XIV (47-44),both of whom she had killed,and with her son,Ptolemy XV or Caesarion (44-30). She claimed the latter was fathered by Julius Caesar,who had become her lover after entering Egypt in 48 BC in pursuit of Pompey. She was with Caesar in Rome when he was assassinated (44),after which she returned to Egypt to install her son on the throne. She lured Mark Antony,Caesar's heir apparent,into marriage (36),inviting the wrath of Octavian (later Augustus),whose sister Antony had earlier wed. She schemed against and antagonized Antony's friend Herod the Great,thereby losing his support. At a magnificent celebration in Alexandria after Antony's Parthian campaign (36-34),he bestowed Roman lands on his foreign wife and family. Octavian declared war on Cleopatra and Antony and defeated their joint forces at the Battle of Actium (31). Antony committed suicide and,after a failed attempt to beguile Octavian,so too did Cleopatra,by exposing her breast to an asp.

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