麻薩諸塞

麻薩諸塞(Massachusetts)

正式名稱麻薩諸塞州(Commonwealth of Massachusetts)

美國東北部的州。為新英格蘭諸州之一,面積21,456平方公里;首府波士頓。東瀕大西洋,該州的土地貧瘠多巖,雖然蔓越橘種植很重要,但整個農業在經濟中的作用有限。1602年英國第一個殖民者戈斯諾爾德(B. Gosnold)到達時,該地區居住著阿爾岡昆印第安人。清教徒在普里茅斯定居,他們是在1620年乘坐「五月花號」來的。麻薩諸塞海灣公司鼓勵清教徒定居者們建立並管理麻薩諸塞灣殖民地。1643年它加入新英格蘭聯盟,1652年取得了緬因。1675年該州東南部和中部經歷了菲利普王戰爭。1684年失去了它的第一次建制權,1686年成為新英格蘭版圖的一部分。1691年第二次建制給予這塊殖民地對緬因和普里茅斯的管轄權。18世紀時麻薩諸塞成為對抗英國殖民政策的中心;是波士頓茶黨案以及勒星頓和康科特戰役的發生地,該戰役標誌了美國革命的開始。1788年它成為批准美國憲法的第六個州。它是19世紀工業革命的前哨,以紡織業著稱。如今它的主要工業是電子工業、高科技以及通訊業。它有許多著名的高等學府。旅遊業也很重要,尤其在科德角地區和伯克夏山。人口約6,118,000(1997)。

English version:

Massachusetts

State (pop.,1997 est.: 6,000),northeastern U.S. One of the New England states,it covers 8,284 sq mi (21,456 sq km); its capital is Boston. Bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean,the state's soils are poor and rocky,and agriculture plays a limited role in the economy,although cranberry farming is important. The region was inhabited by Algonquian Indian tribes when the first English settler,Bartholomew Gosnold,arrived in 1602. Plymouth was settled by the Pilgrims,who came on the Mayflower in 1620. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded and governed by the Massachusetts Bay Co. spurring Puritan settlement. It joined the New England Confederation in 1643 and acquired Maine in 1652. The southeastern and central state's settlements experienced King Philip's War in 1675. After losing its first charter in 1684,it became part of the Dominion of New England in 1686. Its second charter in 1691 granted the colony jurisdiction over Maine and Plymouth. In the 18th century Massachusetts became a center of resistance to British colonial policy; it was the scene of the Boston Tea Party,and of uprisings at the Battles of Lexington and Concord that marked the beginning of the American Revolution. In 1788,it became the sixth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. It was in the forefront of the 19th century Industrial Revolution and was known for its textile mills. Today its major industries are electronics,high technology,and communications. It is well-known as the location of many institutions of higher learning. Tourism is important especially in the Cape Cod region and the Berkshires.

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