傑克森

傑克森(1767~1845年)

Jackson,Andrew

美國第七任總統(1829~1837)。出生於南卡羅來納(South Carolina)沃克斯華(Waxhaw)移民區,曾在故鄉附近短暫參與美國革命,他的家人為英軍所殺。後來勤學法律,1788年擔任北卡羅來納州(North Carolina)西部地區檢察官(prosecuting attorney)。此區改為田納西州(Tennessee)後,當選為眾議院議員(1796~1797)與參議院議員(1797~1798)。之後任職於田納西州最高法院(1798~1804),1802年被推選為田納西州國民兵司令(major general of the Tennessee militia)。1812年戰爭開始時,他徵召五萬名志願軍服役。但他被派去與密西西比準州(Mississippi Territory)的英國人聯合對抗克里克印第安人(Creek Indians)。歷經漫長戰鬥(1813~1814),在馬蹄鐵彎道之役(Battle of Horseshoe Bend)中打敗克里克人。在從英國-西班牙聯軍手中奪得佛羅里達的彭薩科拉(Pensacola)後,又揮師向西攻打路易斯安那(Louisiana)的英軍。在紐奧良戰役(Battle of New Orleans)中獲得決定性勝利,成為國家英雄,報界暱稱「老頑固」(Old Hickory)。美國取得佛羅里達後,被任名為該區首長(1821)。1824年總統大選,四名候選人中他贏得最多選舉人票,但眾議院裁決亞當斯當選。1828年經過一番激烈選戰後,他打敗亞當斯當選為總統,成為第一個來自阿帕拉契山(Appalachian Mountains)以西的總統。他的當選被視作政治民主的一大勝利。他撤換許多聯邦官員,錄用其擁護者,此一作法以分贓制(spoils system)聞名。他推行一項把印第安人遷至西部的政策,即《印第安人移居法》(Indian Removal Acts)。在否認原則(nullification)運動上,他與副總統卡爾霍恩的意見相左因而決裂。1832年再次當選總統,部分原因在於他反資本主義的財政政策,以及受爭議的否決發給美國銀行特許狀案(參閱Bank War)。擔任總統期間,他的聲望持續累積。任內民主黨開始茁壯,導向充滿活力的兩黨制度。

English version:

1767~1845年

Jackson,Andrew

Seventh president of the U.S. (1829-37). Born in Waxhaw,S.C.,he fought briefly in the American Revolution near his frontier home,where his family was killed. He studied law and in 1788 was appointed prosecuting attorney for western North Carolina. When the region became the state of Tennessee,he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1796-97) and Senate (1797-98). He served on the state supreme court (1798-1804) and in 1802 was elected major general of the Tennessee militia. When the War of 1812 began,he offered the U.S. the services of his 50,000-volunteer militia. He was sent to fight the Creek Indians allied with the British in Mississippi Territory. After a lengthy battle (1813-14),he defeated them at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. After capturing Pensacola,Fla.,from the British-allied Spanish,he marched overland to engage the British in Louisiana. A decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero,dubbed “Old Hickory” by the press. After U.S. acquisition of Florida,he was named governor of the territory (1821). One of four candidates in the 1824 presidential election,he won an electoral-votes plurality but the House gave the election to John Quincy Adams. In 1828 Jackson defeated Adams after a fierce campaign and became the first president elected from west of the Appalachian Mountains. His election was considered a triumph of political democracy. He replaced many federal officeholders with his supporters,a process that became known as the spoils system. He pursued a policy of moving Indians westward with the Indian Removal Acts. He split with his vice president,John C. Calhoun,over the nullification movement. His reelection in 1832 was due in part to support for his anticapitalistic fiscal policies and a controversial veto that affected the Bank of the U.S. (see Bank War). His popularity continued to build throughout his presidency. During his tenure a strong Democratic Party developed that led to a vigorous two-party system.

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