鮑林

鮑林(1901~1994年)

Pauling,Linus (Carl)

美國化學家。在加州理工學院獲得博士學位,1931年在該大學任教。他最早把量子力學原理應用到分子結構研究上,並卓有成效地利用了X射線衍射、電子衍射、磁效應及熱效應來計算化學鍵之間原子間的距離和鍵角。著作《化學鍵的本性以及分子結晶的結構》(1939)成為20世紀最具影響力的化學教科書之一。他是美國化學界諾貝爾獎的「朗繆爾獎」的第一位獲得者(1931),後來也成為路易斯獎章的首次得獎人(1951),並在1954年獲得諾貝爾化學獎。1962年代表他的研究成果的核子武器控制方法以及反核子試驗使他獲得了諾貝爾和平獎,成為了第一位兩次單獨獲得諾貝爾獎的人。在接下來的年月裡,他致力於研究如何防止和治療因過度攝取維生素和礦物質而導致的疾病,尤其是維生素C攝食過量問題。

English version:

1901~1994年

Pauling,Linus (Carl)

U.S. chemist. Born in Portland,Ore.,he received his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology and became a professor there in 1931. He was one of the first researchers to apply quantum mechanics to the study of molecular structures; to calculate interatomic distances and the angles between chemical bonds (see bonding),he effectively used X-ray diffraction,electron diffraction,magnetic effects,and the heat of reaction. His book The Nature of the Chemical Bond,and the Sturcture of Molecules and Crystals (1939) became one of the century's most influential chemistry texts. He was the first recipient of the American Chemical Society's Langmuir Prize (1931),and later the first recipient of its Lewis medal (1951),and in 1954 he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. In 1962 his efforts on behalf of control of nuclear weapons and against nuclear testing brought him the Nobel Peace Prize,making him the first recipient of two unshared Nobel Prizes. In later years he devoted himself to the study of the prevention and treatment of illness by taking high doses of vitamins and minerals,particularly vitamin C.

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