生態學

生態學(ecology)

研究生物與其環境之間及生物彼此之間的互動關係的一門學科。生理生態學(physiological ecology)的重點在研究生物個體與其環境的物理、化學特徵之間的關係。行為生態學(behavioral ecology)研究生物個體的行為,包括取食技術、對掠食的生存適應、交配以及對環境變化的應答等。種群生態學(population ecology),包括種群遺傳學(genetics),研究影響動、植物種群分佈和多型現象的因素。群落生態學(community ecology)研究動、植物種群的組織和功能。古生態學(paleoecology)是研究化石種類的生態學,為生態學中重要的一支。生態學家常常集中研究某些特定種類的生物,也專門研究某種具體的環境。在應用生態學(applied ecology)中,基本的生態學原理可用以管理作物或家養動物的種群,從而提高產量,減少蟲害。理論生態學家的工作促進某些實用問題的研究,如漁業對魚類種群的影響,並設計有關總體的生態學相互關係的模式。

English version:

ecology

Study of the relationships between organisms and their environment. Physiological ecology focuses on the relationships between individual organisms and the physical and chemical features of their environment. Behavioral ecologists study the behaviors of individual organisms as they react to their environment. Population ecology,including population genetics,is the study of processes that affect the distribution and abundance of animal and plant populations. Community ecology studies how communities of plant and animal populations function and are organized. Paleoecology is the study of the ecology of fossil organisms. Ecologists frequently concentrate on particular taxonomic groups or on specific environments. Applied ecology applies ecological principles to the management of populations of crops and animals. Theoretical ecologists provide simulations of particular practical problems and develop models of general ecological relevance.

參考文章

生態學環保百科生態學馬克思主義的產生經濟百科奧康納的生態學馬克思主義理論概述經濟百科古生態學Paleoecology地球科學奧康納的生態學馬克思主義的構建經濟百科加州神鷲的簡介、科學分類、分類學、進化史、形態、地理分佈、生態學和行為、飲食、生長繁殖、保護現狀、與人類關係、外部連結鳥類

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