亞當斯

亞當斯(1735~1826年)

Adams,John

美國政治家,亦為第一任副總統(1789~1797)及第二任總統(1797~1801)。生於麻州布蘭曲市(Braintree)於波士頓習法。1764年和艾碧該.史密斯(Abigail Smith,婚後名艾碧該.亞當斯)結婚。積極參與美國獨立運動,被選入麻州的立法機構,後來成為麻州代表,前往參加大陸會議(1774~1778)。1776年被選派入一個委員會,與傑佛遜(Thomas Jefferson)等人起草「獨立宣言」(Declaration of Independence)。1776~1778年間亞當斯參與議會中的各種委員會活動,包括建立海軍的委員會和外交事務委員會。1778~1788年擔任外交官,出使法國、荷蘭和英國。在美國第一屆總統大選中,他獲得的票數是第二多,成為華盛頓(George Washington)的副手。在其總統任期內,最受爭議的是他簽署的「客籍法和鎮壓叛亂法」(Alien and Sedition Acts,1798),以及他和保守的聯邦黨(Federalist Party)結盟。1800年競選連任,但被傑佛遜打敗,退休至麻州,過著規律的生活。1812年與傑佛遜言歸於好,1826年兩人死於同一天,即7月4日(美國獨立五十週年紀念日)。

English version:

1735~1826年

Adams,John

U.S. politician,first vice president (1789-97) and second president (1797-1801) of the U.S. Born in Braintree,Mass.,he practiced law in Boston. In 1764 he married Abigail Smith (A. Adams). Active in the American independence movement,he was elected to the Massachusetts legislature and served as a delegate to the Continental Congress (1774-78),where he was appointed to a committee with Thomas Jefferson and others to draft the Declaration of Independence. In 1776-78 he was appointed to many congressional committees,including one to create a navy and another to review foreign affairs. He served as a diplomat in France,the Netherlands,and England (1778-88). In the first U.S. presidential election,he received the second-largest number of votes and became vice president under George Washington. Adams's term as president was marked by controversy over his signing the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798 and by his alliance with the conservative Federalist Party. In 1800 he was defeated for reelection by Jefferson and retired to live a secluded life in Massachusetts. In 1812 he was reconciled with Jefferson,with whom he began an illuminating correspondence. Both men died on July 4,1826,the Declaration's 50th anniversary. John Quincy Adams was his son.

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