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七夕情人節語錄

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侵蝕(erosion)

由自然營力將地表物質從地殼上除去並將這種被除去的物質從除去的地點搬走的過程。侵蝕由受風力、流水、海水(海浪)和冰川作用等引起的。侵蝕和堆積或沈積共同作用通過風、流水和冰的各種地貌作用過程改變現有地形創造出新的地形。侵蝕常在岩石通過風化(weathering)被瓦解或蝕變之後發生。流水是最重要的自然侵蝕營力。海岸的損壞或海岸侵蝕,主要是通過海浪的作用造成的。海浪侵蝕主要是通過海水的水壓力和海浪拍擊海岸的衝力,以及通過受海水無休止攪動的砂子和石礫的磨蝕完成的。河岸的侵蝕是由於帶有沈積物的流水的沖刷所引起。冰川侵蝕主要以通過冰川從地上面磨過時對地表物質的磨蝕(大部分磨蝕作用可歸因於冰川底層內嵌入的碎石)的方式進行。在某些乾旱的荒漠地帶,風通過吹動沙子對造成岩石的侵蝕起著重要作用,所以,未曾黏結在一起的和未受植被保護的沙丘的表面就要遭到侵蝕並通過沙子的吹積而改變。人類的介入,無論是為了農業或放牧的理由而改變它的自然生長環境,都會造成或加速風和水的侵蝕。亦請參閱sheet erosion。

English version:

erosion

Removal of surface material from the earth's crust and transportation of the eroded materials by natural agencies from the point of removal. Erosion is caused by wind action,river and stream processes,marine processes (sea waves),and glacial processes. The complementary actions of erosion and deposition or sedimentation operate through wind,moving water,and ice to alter existing landforms and create new landforms. Erosion will often occur after rock has been disintegrated or altered through weathering. Moving water is the most important natural agent of erosion. Sea wave erosion results primarily from the impact of waves striking the shore and the abrasive action of sand and pebbles agitated by wave action. Erosion by rivers is caused by the scouring action of the sediment-containing flowing water. Glacial erosion occurs by surface abrasion as the ice,embedded with debris,moves slowly over the ground accompanied by the plucking of rock from the surface. Wind plays a key role in arid regions as blowing sand breaks down rock and dislodges surface sand from unprotected sand dunes. Human intervention,as by the removal of natural vegetation for farming or grazing purposes,can lead to or accelerate erosion by wind and water. See also sheet erosion.

參考文章

麓原,山前侵蝕平原Pediment地球科學差異侵蝕Erosion,Differential地球科學河流侵蝕迴圈StreamErosionCycleof地球科學侵蝕Erosion地球科學某高爐爐缸直徑5m,停爐大修時爐底侵蝕深度為鐵口中心線下800mm鍊鐵渦流侵蝕Evorsion地球科學侵蝕基準面BaseLevel地球科學

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