馬京利

馬京利(1843~1901年)

McKinley,William

美國第二十五任總統(1897~1901)。南北戰爭期間,他擔任海斯上校(Rutherford B. Hayes,後為總統)的副官。也正是海斯上校後來鼓勵他參政。1877年他入選參議院(1877~1891)。他支援保護性關稅並資助設立了1980年的馬京利稅法。在漢納(Mark Hanna)的支援下,他獲選為州長。1896年他贏得了共和黨總統候選人提名,並在大選中擊敗了布萊安(W. J. Bryan)。他曾召集國會召開特別會議討論提高關稅問題,但是很快他就被古巴問題和緬因號戰艦炸燬事件纏身,結果招致美西戰爭。戰爭結束時,他鼓吹把菲律賓、波多黎各以及其他前西班牙屬地劃歸美國。1900年他再次以多票優勢擊敗了布萊安。接著他開始到處履行、鼓吹加強信任和商業互惠的控制以增加外貿和其他一些戰爭期間忽略的問題。1901年9月6日,一位無政府主義者佐格茨(Leon Czolgosz)在紐約州的水牛鎮給了他致命的一槍。羅斯福繼任為總統。

English version:

1843~1901年

McKinley,William

25th president of the U.S. (1897-1901). Born in Niles,Ohio,he served in the Civil War as an aide to Col. Rutherford B. Hayes,who later encouraged his political career. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1877-91),where he favored protective tariffs and sponsored the McKinley Tariff of 1890. With the support of Mark Hanna,he was elected governor (1892-96). In 1896 he won the Republican presidential nomination and the general election,defeating William Jennings Bryan. He called a special session of Congress to increase customs duties,but was soon involved in events in Cuba and the sinking of the USS Maine,which led to the Spanish-American War. At the war's end,he advocated U.S. dependency status for the Philippines,Puerto Rico,and other former Spanish territories. He again defeated Bryan by a large majority in 1900,and began a tour to urge control of trusts and commercial reciprocity to boost foreign trade,issues neglected during the war. In Buffalo,N.Y.,on September 6,1901,he was fatally shot by an anarchist,Leon Czolgosz. He was succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt.

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