明治時代

明治時代(1868~1912年)

Meiji period

日本歷史時期,起自明治天皇(Meiji emperor)掌政,至其逝世告終。這是個急速現代化與西化的時代。封建領地被廢除,取而代之的是地方縣市;大名(daimyo)與武士(samurai)的特權也一併取消。並不是所有的武士都樂見這種改變,因此發生了多起叛變,其中最著名的是西鄉隆盛(Saigo Takamori)所發起的那次。為了維護強而有力的中央政權,全國進行普遍徵兵而建立起一支國家軍隊。新的農業稅制也被制定出來,以支撐新政府的財政,並引進十進位的流通幣制。為了促進經濟成長,政府對紡織工業伸出援手,建設鐵路與船運網,並興建鋼鐵工廠。同時也進行教育改革,實行強制性的男女同校義務教育。1912年時,明治維新的目標已大致達成:與西方列強的不平等條約重新簽訂,經濟也蓬勃發展,而軍事力量更贏得西方各國的看重。亦請參閱Charter Oath、Meiji Constitution。

English version:

1868~1912年

Meiji period

Period in Japanese history beginning with the restoration of the Meiji emperor and ending with his death. It was a time of rapid modernization and westernization. Feudal domains were abolished and replaced with prefectures; daimyo and samurai were relieved of their special privileges. Not all samurai were happy with the changes,and there were numerous rebellions,notably that of Saigo Takamori. To secure a strong central government,a national army was formed and universal conscription was enacted. A new agricultural tax was instituted to finance the new government,and a decimal currency was introduced. Eager to encourage economic growth,the government aided the textile industry,established railways and shipping lines,and founded an ironworks. Education was also reformed,and compulsory coeducational elementary schools were introduced. By 1912 the goals of the Meiji Restoration had been largely accomplished: the unequal treaties with Western powers had been revised,the country was developing well economically,and its military power had won the respect of the West. See also Charter Oath,Meiji Constitution.

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