邁爾斯戴維斯

邁爾斯戴維斯(1926~1991年)

Davis,Miles (Dewey)

美國爵士樂小號手、樂隊領隊,是最早演奏爵士樂和對爵士樂最有影響的音樂人士之一。父親是著名牙外科醫生,1944年就讀於紐約茱麗亞音樂學院(Juilliard School),1946~1948年與查理帕克一起工作。早期主要是當樂隊領隊,1949年灌製了《冷爵士樂的誕生》(Birth of the Cool)唱片,其中一種輕鬆的美感取代了咆哮樂(bebop)的狂熱風格,開創了1950年代的「酷派爵士樂」(cool jazz)。1955年起,戴維斯的樂隊採用他的簡潔、抒情的作法,與那些薩克管演奏家(如科爾特蘭〔John Coltrane〕和蕭特〔Wayne Shorter〕)極難懂的曲風正好相反。其深沈憂鬱的曲調、有條不紊的即興演奏,以及經常使用金屬消音器對爵士小號獨奏者的影響很大。1959年發表的專輯唱片《泛泛藍調》(Kind of Blue)是典型和聲爵士開創性的代表作。1960年代期間,他的音樂變得越來越前衛,1960年代末使用了電子樂器(如1969年的《釀造潑婦》〔Bitches Brew〕),因而在1970年代促使爵士樂和搖滾樂的融合。

English version:

1926~1991年

Davis,Miles (Dewey)

U.S. trumpeter and bandleader,one of the most original and influential musicians in jazz. Born in Alton,Ill.,Davis grew up in East St. Louis,Mo.,and began study at the Juilliard School in New York in 1944. He worked with Charlie Parker 1946-48. His early efforts as a bandleader resulted in recordings known as “Birth of the Cool” (1949),in which a relaxed aesthetic replaced the freneticism of bebop and launched the “cool jazz” school of the 1950s. From 1955 Davis's groups framed his spare,lyrical approach in contrast to the dense complexity of saxophonists such as John Coltrane and Wayne Shorter. His dark,brooding tone,logically paced improvisations,and frequent use of the metal Harmon mute were major influences on jazz trumpet soloists. The 1959 album Kind of Blue was a pioneering example of modal harmonic jazz. His music became more aggressive during the 1960s,and his use of electronic instruments by the end of the decade (Bitches Brew,1969) gave rise to the jazz-rock fusion of the 1970s.

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