圖西人

圖西人(Tutsi)

居住在盧安達和蒲隆地的非洲種族,傳統上被歸為尼羅人,人數有150萬。他們代表著一個佔少數人口的傳統貴族階層,這一階層統治過人口眾多的胡圖人。圖西人最初是好戰的放牧人,在14或15世紀到達該地區,後來在德國和比利時殖民政權的幫助下同胡圖人建立了主僕關係。處在這一政治金字塔形政體結構的頂端的是姆瓦米(mwami,國王),被視為神的傳人。如今胡圖人和圖西人在文化上已有很大程度的融合,兩個民族都操盧安達語和隆迪語,保留著相似的傳統和/或基督教信仰。1961年以前圖西人在盧安達一直保有對胡圖人的統治地位,直到其君主被推翻。1972年胡圖人在蒲隆地開展了一場不成功的暴動,導致10萬人死亡,其中多數為胡圖人。1993年在蒲隆地和1994年在盧安達發生了更嚴重的衝突,在盧安達的衝突中還發生了胡圖人的種族大屠殺,導致總共100萬人死亡,100萬~200萬胡圖人被迫住進了薩伊(今剛果)和坦尚尼亞的難民營。

English version:

Tutsi

African ethnic group whose members,traditionally classed as Nilotes and numbering 1.5 million,live in Rwanda and Burundi. They represent a traditional aristocratic minority,which has dominated the more populous Hutu. Originally warrior-herders,the Tutsi entered the area in the 14th or 15th century and later,assisted by German and Belgian colonial regimes,cultivated a lord-vassal relationship with the Hutu. At the head of the pyramidal political structure was the mwami (“king”),considered to be of divine origin. Today Hutu and Tutsi cultures have largely become integrated,both speak Rwanda and Rundi and adhere to similar traditional and/or Christian religious beliefs. The Tutsi retained their dominant position over the Hutu in Rwanda until 1961,when the monarch was overthrown. An unsuccessful Hutu revolt in Burundi in 1972 led to 100,000 deaths,mostly Hutu. In 1993 in Burundi and in 1994 in Rwanda,further clashes occurred,the latter including a Hutu genocidal campaign in which over a million people in all were killed and 1-2 million Hutu forced into refugee camps in Zaire (now Congo) and Tanzania.

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